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Melatonin and circadian rhythms in autism: Case report
Abstract: Among the most co-occurring conditions in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there are sleep disorders which may exacerbate associated behavioral disorders and lead to intensification of existing autistic symptoms. Several studies investigating the use of melatonin in the treatment of sleep disorders in ASD have shown comparative efficiency in sleep with little or no side effects. Here we report a case of ASD with non-24-hour rhythm and the effect of melatonin in circadian parameters by actigraphy. Visual analysis of the first 10 days recorded and the periodogram suggest that this patient showed a non-24-hour rhythm. This ASD subject showed before melatonin administration an activity/rest rhythm lower than 24 hours.
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Modification of a personal dosimetry device for logging melanopic irradiance
Abstract: Performance characterisations were carried out before and after a modification to the optics of the Condor Instruments’ ActTrust light and activity data loggers to improve the spectral performance for measuring melanopic-weighted irradiance in non-visual studies. The results confirm the intended improvement, so that the device provides the best-known single-sensor match to the melanopic response. In addition, the device includes a separate sensor which remained well-matched for illuminance logging.

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Nocturnal motor activity and light exposure: Objective actigraphy-based marks of melancholic and non-melancholic depressive disorder. Brief report
Abstract: Differentiation of melancholic (MEL) and non-melancholic (N-MEL) depression results from subjective assessment of psychomotor disturbance, which obscures their accurate diagnosis. CORE instrument assigned participants with severe or refractory depression to MEL or N-MEL group. Participants underwent 7 days of actigraphy. Data was fitted to a cosinusoidal curve corresponding to a 24-h rhythm. Nocturnal activity was significantly higher in N-MEL. ROC curve shows that average night activity discriminate participants with 71% sensitivity and 100% specificity (area under the curve = 0.84). Actigraphy contribute to the objective differentiation of depression subtypes, and have implications for research on their neurobiology and clinical management.

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Non-visual effects of light: How to use light to promote circadian entrainment and elicit alertness

Abstract: In addition to stimulating the visual system, light incident on the retina stimulates other biological functions, also referred to as non-visual responses. Among the most notable biological functions are human circadian rhythms, which are bodily rhythms that, in constant darkness, oscillate with a period close to, but typically slightly longer than 24 hours. Twenty-four-hour light–dark patterns incident on the retina are the major synchroniser of circadian rhythms to the local time on Earth. Entrainment of circadian rhythms has been implicated in health and well-being. Light can also elicit an acute alerting effect on people, similar to a ‘cup of coffee.’ This review summarises the literature on how light affects entrainment and alertness and how it can be used to achieve these aims.

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Optical performance characterization of light-logging actigraphy dosimeters

Abstract: There are several wearable products specially developed or marketed for studying sleep, circadian rhythms, and light levels. However, new recommendations relating to human physiological responses to light have changed what measurements researchers may demand. The performances of 11 light-logging dosimeters from eight manufacturers were compared. The directional and spectral sensitivities, linearity, dynamic range, and resolution were tested for seven models, and compared along with other published data. The sample mainly comprised light-logging actigraphy dosimeters wearable as badges, in accordance with measurement protocols for larger-scale field studies. A proposed standard for optical performance assessments is set out.

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Projeto e construção de um dispositivo de medição de luminosidade e temperatura para o estudo de ritmos biológicos humanos

Abstract: Esse trabalho apresenta a concepção, projeto e construção de um dispositivo para realizar medições ligadas ao estudo sobre a alteração dos ritmos biológicos humanos em exposição prolongada à iluminação artificial. A coleta de dados inclui a luminosidade e temperatura de um ambiente hospitalar, atendendo aos critérios propostos para sua utilização em um projeto de pesquisa do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Os sensores desses parâmetros ambientais são ligados a dois tipos de microcontroladores, ambos capazes de armazenar e transmitir os resultados para posterior análise.
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Relação entre o nível de conhecimento sobre o sono e os hábitos e qualidade de sono, e os componentes da atenção em universitários
Abstract: O atraso de fase do sono, caracterizado por horários mais tardios de dormir e acordar, visto na adolescência, pode persistir após o ingresso dos jovens na universidade. Esse atraso resulta no encurtamento da duração do sono dos estudantes que estudam pela manhã, uma vez que são obrigados a adiantar o horário de acordar na semana letiva. Esse comportamento pode modificar os hábitos e qualidade de sono e assim, ocasionar prejuízo na atenção daqueles do turno matutino. Sabendo que a atenção é um processo básico capaz de interferir em outros processos cognitivos e que o conhecimento atua na tomada de decisões, investigamos a relação entre o nível de conhecimento sobre o sono e os hábitos e a qualidade de sono, e os componentes da atenção de jovens de uma universidade pública do RN.
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Relação entre exposição à luz em sala de aula, ciclo sono-vigília e atenção em adolescentes de diferentes cidades do RN
Abstract: Em adolescentes, o atraso de fase do sono está associado à redução na duração do sono, ocasionando aumento na sonolência diurna e baixo desempenho acadêmico. O baixo desempenho pode estar relacionado à redução na atenção, processo cognitivo, cujos componentes apresentam variação circadiana, e assim como o ciclo sono-vigília (CSV) pode ser modulado por ciclos de luz-escuro. Portanto, este estudo tem como objetivo verificar a existência de relações entre a intensidade luminosa na sala de aula e o CSV, qualidade de sono, sonolência diurna e atenção em adolescentes do turno matutino de escolas privadas da capital (C) (Natal: Latitude: 05º 47′ 42″ Sul, Longitude: 35º 12′ 34″ Oeste) e do interior (I) (Santa Cruz: Latitude: 6° 13′ 46” Sul, Longitude: 36° 1′ 24” Oeste) do estado do RN. Participaram do estudo 115 adolescentes (C: 56 e I: 59), de ambos os sexos (41 meninos), matriculados no 1º e 2º anos do ensino médio.
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Rhythmic changes in Fabry disease: Inversion and non-oscillatory pattern in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin daily profile
Abstract: Fabry disease is a progressive disease characterized by an enzymatic deficiency of acid alpha-galactosidase and glycosphingolipids storage within the lysosomes. The disease has two phenotypes: classic and nonclassic. Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common sign reported by patients and can be caused by a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Activity and rest cycle, variation of body temperature and melatonin biosynthesis are known rhythmicity markers. In the face of these evidences, our goal was to evaluate the rhythmic profile in Fabry’s disease patients using rhythmicity markers. 

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Sleep and light exposure across different levels of urbanisation in Brazilian communities

Abstract: Quilombos are settlements originally founded by Africans and African descendants (Quilombolas) in remote parts of Brazil to escape slavery. Due to individual histories, Quilombos nowadays exhibit different states of industrialisation, making them ideal for studying the influence of electrification on daily behaviour. In a comparative approach, we aimed to understand whether and how human sleep changes with the introduction of artificial light. We investigated daily rest-activity-rhythms and sleep-patterns in the Quilombolas’ by both wrist actimetry and the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ; the results of these two instruments correlated highly). 

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SleepData – Sleep Disorders Clinical Platform
Abstract: Esta dissertação apresenta o design e desenvolvimento do SleepData, uma nova plataforma de informação para a gestão de dados clínicos de distúrbios do sono. A plataforma integra dados de múltiplas fontes produzidas por uma diversidade de dispositivos de monitorização e testes laboratoriais. O SleepData fornece ferramentas para análise estatística e ferramentas de suporte ao diagnóstico, especialmente concebidas para estudar pacientes com síndrome do atraso das fases do sono (SAFS) e insónia.
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Social jetlag impairs balance control

Abstract: We assessed the impact of a common sleep disturbance, the social jetlag, on postural control during a period involving workdays and free days. The sleep habits of 30 healthy subjects were registered with a wrist actimeter for nine days (starting on Friday) and they participated in a set of four postural control tests carried out on Friday and on Monday. In addition, the subjects filled questionnaires about their sleep conditions and preferences. Actimetry measurements were used to calculate the Mid Sleep Phase (MSP). The difference between the MSP values on the workdays and free days measures the social jetlag. There were significant differences in sleep variables between workdays and free days. Postural control performance improved on Monday, after free sleep over the weekend, when compared with the tests performed on Friday. It seems that social jetlag affects brain areas involved in the control of posture, such as thalamus and the prefrontal cortex as well as the cerebellum, resulting in a worse performance in postural control. The performance improvement in the posture tests after the free days could be attributed to a lower sleep debt.

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The Psychological and Physiological Part of Emotions: Multimodal Approximation for Valence Classification
Abstract: In order to develop more precise and functional affective applications, it is necessary to achieve a balance between the psychology and the engineering applied to emotions. Signals from the central and peripheral nervous systems have been used for emotion recognition purposes, however, their operation and the relationship between them remains unknown. In this context, in the present work we have tried to approach the study of the psychobiology of both systems in order to generate a computational model for the recognition of emotions in the dimension of valence. To this end, the electroencephalography (EEG) signal, electrocardiography (ECG) signal and skin temperature of 24 subjects have been studied.
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The Use of Actigraphy for Risk Stratification in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Abstract: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children is a spectrum of abnormal breathing patterns, characterized by a limitation of airflow during sleep. Upper airway resistance and collapse of the pharynx can cause varying degrees of obstruction, which can be exacerbated by the presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, and craniofacial or neuromuscular disorders. The spectrum of SDB ranges from primary snoring (PS), to upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS), to the most severe diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).1 Obstructive sleep apnea can be further stratified into mild, moderate, and severe categories. This spectrum is based on the frequency and severity of airflow obstructions, arousals, and gas exchange abnormalities during sleep.

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Validação de um actígrafo nacional
Abstract: O actígrafo consiste em um aparelho de pulso equipado com um acelerômetro, um microprocessador e uma memória interna, que são capazes de detectar e armazenar o registro de movimentos. A actigrafia é utilizada na avaliação de transtornos do sono como doenças de ritmo circadiano, insônia e sonolência excessiva diurna. Este método apresenta algumas vantagens em relação à polissonografia como o período de avaliação maior, simplicidade no uso e na interpretação e baixo custo. Este estudo tem por objetivo validar o actígrafo ActTrust na avaliação de sono e vigília comparando-o com a polissonografia. 

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